An emblematic site for the French and international economy, Paris La Défense is one of the most important tertiary centres in Europe. It is a particularly sensitive site that poses complex security problems, particularly due to its atypical structure, based on a slab-based architecture model. The district is characterised, in particular, by its immediate proximity to Paris, a high concentration of people, the presence of a major road and rail junction, a complex distribution of competences and responsibilities, and the multiplicity and interdependence of the stakeholders and facilities. These particularities constitute as many constraints that must be taken into account in the framework of this plan.
The plan, approved in 2013, aims to promote better management of a major event at La Défense and aims to facilitate the action of the emergency services.
To this end, an alert scheme taking into account all the actors on the site has been adopted. The public management establishment of the district, Paris La Défense, has a special place in it.
Emergency access has been worked on in order to guarantee better access to the site for emergency services, while mitigating the impact on road traffic around the site.
Finally, the management of traffic flows has been rethought with the aim of facilitating the work of the emergency services and communication during a crisis has been clarified.
The PMSD, which is a specific ORSEC provision, has been regularly updated since then, following the civil security exercises that took place during the year.
The provisions of the plan can be implemented in the event of a disaster of accidental or intentional origin:
The main risks
- Aircraft crash;
- Major fire under a slab (a road or rail tunnel, a car park, the road network, a supply line);
- Serious accident in rail transport;
- Partial collapse of the slab leading to a risk of collapse of cascading structures;
The main threats
- Terrorist attack with knives and firearms;
- Terrorist bomb attack on the forecourt, in a high-rise building, a public building, a road or rail tunnel, an underground car park, the road network, the supply lines;
- CBRN terrorist attack or malicious act;
- Aerial terrorist attack.
La Défense is divided into five sectors
- North Arch
- South Arch
- North Esplanade
- South Esplanade
- Parvis sector (This area is located under the slab and includes Westfield - Les 4 Temps, the CNIT and the Multimodal station)
The 5 sectors of the La Défense security plan
Statement of strategy
In the event of a major event on the La Défense site, the strategy to be adopted, a priori, will consist of triggering the most appropriate action for the event (evacuation, confinement or a combination of the two) in the sector or sectors affected.
In addition, the DOS in consultation with the COS will decide on the measures to be taken in the other sectors.
Evacuation means leaving the area located on the slab on foot, towards the communes located on the outskirts of the La Défense district (Puteaux, Courbevoie, Nanterre, Neuilly-sur-Seine). Under these conditions, it is impossible to consider taking public transport or your own vehicle. These actions would have the direct consequence of congestion of the entire neighbourhood and slow down the arrival of the emergency services.
Sheltering or confinement consists in staying in the building in which you are at the time of the alert.
The terrorist threat is the subject of a specific strategy, with the transmission of a reflexive act of sheltering, common to the whole district, even before the PMSD is triggered and without going through the prefecture.
Management of the alert
Alerting the actors
In the event of a major event on the La Défense site, the witnesses of the alert must notify :
- the police / 17
- the fire brigade / 18 This information must be systematically forwarded to Paris La Défense, which has the task of centralising the information and forwarding it to all the players.
Warning schemes to be adopted in the event of a major event on the La Défense site
For operational reasons, the sole recipients of the alert from the public authorities, via the authorities, via the Paris La Défense automatic alert system, are the security control rooms of the various establishments in the district, including the transport operators (RATP and SNCF). It is therefore their responsibility to report any change of contact details to the following address at the following address email@example.com
The message to be broadcast by Paris La Défense in the event of an evacuation is as follows:
A serious incident has just occurred in sector XX of La Défense. Evacuate immediately by following the markings. "
The message to be broadcast by Paris La Défense in case of confinement is the following: A serious incident has just occurred in sector XX of La Défense. Stay under cover, wait for instructions. "
Note: While waiting for the first instructions, the owners, managers and employers of owners, managers and employers of Defence establishments are responsible for ensuring their safety, by virtue of articles 121-3 of the penal code, L721-1 of the internal security code and L4121-1 of the Labour Code, particularly in the case of establishments open to the public (Articles R123-2 et seq. of the Construction and Housing Code)
The circulation of information
As soon as the plan is triggered, the prefecture sends a message to activate the COD and activation of the PMSD to all the actors concerned by the event via the SIDPC's automatic alert system.
The town halls are in direct and regular contact with the Departmental Operations Centre to information and disseminate it.
Dissemination of information
The town halls are responsible for alerting the population by any appropriate means of communication and to relay the instructions for behaviour. Thus, it is notably possible to relay this information via :
- Messages broadcast on the Variable Message Signs (PMV)
- Automatic call systems: voice message, sms, email
- Megaphones used by the municipal police if necessary A Public Information Unit (PIU) can be activated if necessary at the prefecture to inform the population (provision of a toll-free number).
A project for a public address system for key points on the slab is underway, led by the Paris La Défense public establishment. In the long term, this system will be able to broadcast an audible alarm as well as pre-recorded warning messages.
In the event of a terrorist attack
In the event of a terrorist attack, the kinetics of the event lead to the dissociation of the first instructions from the formal triggering of the PMSD.
This is why a single instruction in the event of a suspected terrorist attack has been decided: to shelter all sectors.
If a service (BSPP, SAMU, police station or Paris La Défense) has a cluster of clues suggesting that a terrorist attack is taking place at La Défense, it informs the PLD headquarters by telephone, which triggers the general sheltering procedure, by transmitting the corresponding message to the establishments in the district via their automatic alert system.
This procedure can be broken down as follows:
- the towers and establishments able to do so must confine themselves (closing of doors, transmission of the alert to employees and users)
- people on the slab and in the corridors must escape or, if this is impossible, hide. Note: This emergency procedure does not dispense with the basic measures for removing doubt.
The role of facility managers
The managers of La Défense establishments (towers, shopping centres, car parks, multi-modal station, shops, crèches, schools, etc.) represent the end of the PMSD ALERT CHAIN. Their role is essential. They are the ones who will ensure the proper execution of the instructions transmitted by the authorities. This is why it is necessary for them to prepare for the crisis by the instructions locally, by informing their users and by training regularly. regularly.
Preparing for a major event
- Implement the PMSD instructions (sheltering/confinement or evacuation) internally in the structures. or evacuation)
- Set up the necessary infrastructure and procedures to transmit the alert to all users of the facility. Establish the necessary infrastructure and procedures to transmit the alert to all users of the facility (e.g. public address system Set up the necessary infrastructure and procedures to transmit this alert to all users of the establishment (e.g. public address system, automatic alert system, use of local security teams (LSTs))
- Train private security guards and SSIAPs to implement the PMSD instructions (precise and formalized procedures). Training private security guards and SSIAPs in the implementation of PMSD instructions (precise and formalised procedures to be followed)
- Train new arrivals
- Exchange with other Defence establishments to share good practices practices
- Test procedures regularly
During a major event
- While waiting for the first instructions from the authorities, take the first measures to ensure the safety of their establishment and its users Take the first steps to ensure the safety of their establishment and its users
- Transmit the alert from the public authorities to the security control rooms To transmit the alert from the authorities to the users of the establishment
- In the event of a sheltering order, establishments that are able to do so must confine themselves:
- Close and lock the doors of the establishment
- Evacuation of the halls and ground floor to the floors
- Confinement of staff to the upper floors
- Keeping staff away from windows
- Any other appropriate measure
- In the event of an evacuation order:
- Carry out the general evacuation of the establishment
- Guide users with the help of security personnel (guide and clerk) along the * Guide users along the pathway to the outside of the ring road (the pathway is to be Ensure that no one is parked in the entrance area.)
- Make sure that no one parks at the foot of the building
Good reflexes in case of an alert at La Défense
Good reflexes in the event of an alarm at La Défense
If you are in a building in La Défense (e.g. a tower), confine yourself and keep away from windows. Under no circumstances should you try to leave the building you are in.
Good reflexes in the event of an alarm at La Défense
- Go quietly to the emergency exits of the establishment you are in you are in
- Do not park in front of the building or at the foot of the tower
- Do not take public transport in La Défense: it may be stopped
- Follow the green signs set up by Paris La Défense
- Follow the path until you are outside the circular boulevard
- If you are not injured or a direct witness to the event, take public transport in the surrounding communes or return home by your own means.
It is important not to try to get your vehicle back in order to avoid clogging the ring road, which is reserved for emergency vehicles.
This information will be relayed preventively by Paris La Défense to companies, which will be responsible for informing their employees. Car park managers will also have to relay this information to users of La Défense. information to users of La Défense.
Traffic Management Plans
The Traffic Management Plans provided for in the event of a major event on the Paris Plateau will be triggered by the police. They include a specific section dealing with the business district, the aim of which is to facilitate access to La Défense for emergency vehicles and to facilitate the transport of injured people to hospitals in the area.
People are asked not to use or join their vehicles.
In the event of a major event on the La Défense site, the Prefect, in consultation with the Emergency Operations Commander (COS), will decide on the measures to take (sheltering or evacuation).
Moreover, public transport may be completely stopped at first. You should therefore not try to join them in the event of an alert.
Depending on the event, traffic will gradually resume, after consultation with the COS, the Director of Emergency Operations and the transporters.
Reception and orientation of those involved by the municipalities
The assistance of the towns of Courbevoie, Nanterre, Puteaux and Neuilly-sur-Seine represents logistical support for the various emergency services. logistical support to the various emergency services.
This consists in particular of opening places capable of receiving the people involved and not injured. involved and uninjured.
Psychological support will be set up with the help of the civil security associations and the Medical and Psychological Emergency Unit (CUMP) of the SAMU.
Approved civil security associations
Approved civil security associations
The above-mentioned civil security associations are stakeholders in this plan.
They take part, with the emergency services, in victim care operations.
In addition, they mobilise their volunteers to provide human, logistical and technical support to local authorities, particularly in the context of caring for the victims.
Paris La Défense security headquarters: 01 47 73 73 73
Emergencies (European call number) 112
Fire brigade 18
National Police 17
Courbevoie / Police Municipale (24/7) 01 47 88 52 76
Nanterre / Central reception (24/7) 01 72 25 46 46
Puteaux / Police Municipale (24/7) 01 46 92 93 50
Neuilly-sur-Seine Town Hall / switchboard (24/7) 01 40 88 88 88
ADPC: Association Départementale de Protection Civile (Departmental Civil Protection Association)
BSPP: Brigade de Sapeurs Pompiers de Paris
CARE: Centre d'Accueil et de Regroupement des impliqués
COD: Departmental Operational Centre
COS: Commandant des Opérations de Secours (Emergency Operations Commander)
CRF: French Red Cross
DIRIF: Direction Interdépartemental des Routes d'Ile-de-France
DOPC: Direction de l'Ordre Public et de la Circulation
DOS: Director of Emergency Operations
DRIEA: Direction Régionale et Interdépartementale de l'Equipement et de l'Aménagement
DRIEE: Direction Régional et Interdépartementale de l'Environnement et de l'Energie
DTSP: Direction Territoriale de la Sécurité de Proximité
ERP: Etablissement recevant du public
IGH: Immeuble de grande hauteur (high-rise building)
ORSEC: Organisation of the Civil Security Response
ODM: Ordre De Malte
PCS : Central Security Station
PLD: Paris La Défense
SAMU: Emergency Medical Service
SIDPC: Inter-ministerial Service for Civil Defence and Protection